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INNEW ECONOMY, ASOCIOECONOMIC EXAMINATIONONCONCORDANCEOF WOMANLABORFORCEPARTICIPATION



1BİLGE AFŞARI, 2SERPİL AĞCAKAYA, 3SÜLEYMAN ÖĞREKÇİ



1Department of International Trade,KTO Karatay University, Turkey

2Department of Public Finance, Süleyman Demirel University, Turkey

3Post Graduate Student, KTO Karatay University, Turkey

Email: 1bilge.afsar@karatay.edu.tr, 2serpilagcakaya@sdu.edu.tr, 3suleymanogrekci@hotmail.com





Abstract: Inneweconomy,thatwomenareforcedtomakeapreferencebetweenhouseandcareerbecomesanother resultof concordance i.e.includingwomen ineconomy. Indiscriminationofhousewifeandbusinesswoman,women,beingleftunrecorded mostly,becomewidespreadagainalso onthe basisofsocialgender.Theaimofthe study,inservicesectorandflexiblework,throughlaborforceparticipation,is topresenttoincludewomenineconomyinsocialandeconomic basis i.e.tobecomewidespreadinaccompanimentofthediscrimination made intheprofessionalbasis.Dealingwith theconcordanceandcontributionofwomanlaborforceintheselectionsofprofessionfromtheeducationtothe economicsectors,allofthese aims willbereachedand questioned viadefining“concordance”.



Keywords: Globalization, neweconomy, womanlabor force, flexibility, concordance.









1. INTRODUCTION



Afterthe SecondWorldWar, whenfamiliartypehaschanged,the lifeforwomenenteredanintensiveprocess,ontheonehand,withits professionaldimension,on the otherhand,withtherequirement ofhersocial role,Globalization,as asubject oftransformative activity onthelivesof women,has givenimportantresults fromeconomytosociallife.Womenareabletobeexposedtothedifferentdefinitionsfromeconomicpointofview fromtimetotime.For example,beingqualifiedashousewifeortakingplaceinthecriteria suchas secretary or bankofficialindeterminingworkplace.These criteriareflectanoticeableproblem in woman laborforce participation.Allofthesepointshavebeenbegun tobescrutinizedtogetherwithneweconomy.



2. INECONOMY THE DEVELOPMENT STAGESOF LABOR FORCEANDSOCIALRIGHTSOFWOMEN



IntheancientGreece,womenwereresponsible forthe productioninhouseandwomenspentmoretime inthe publicarea(Deighton, 2012a: 23-25);however,Roman womenhada relatively flexible life(Deighton, 2012b:78-79).Forexample,Romanwomencouldeattogetherwith maninthe companyofguestsandfindtimeforthemselves.Marriage isanimportant instituteintermsofAthenianandRomanwomen(Sowerby, 2012: 87; Freeman, 2013: 438-39)andwhileRomanwomendefinedmarriagethrough“loyalty”, forAthenians ,womenstoodoutintherelationshipsofinheritance.Historicaltransformationsrelatedtothe instituteofmarriage(Yalom, 2002)isextremelyimportantinbeingabletounderstandandanalyze thedevelopmentalprocess ofwoman.Andinthisprocess,womenwerenotconsidereddistinctfromtheeconomicandsocialrelationships.Althoughthe economicandsocialvalueof marriage passeda change with thepatriarchal positioningofgovernment,the primaryimportantfactoristhe institutionalstructureof the lifechangingbytheinfluence ofmoderneconomy. The main changesin themoderneconomycanbesummarizedwiththreeheadings(Callinicos, 2014:193).

1. Prevalence ofliberaleconomy(overcomingofmercantilist system)

2. Togetherwiththeprevalenceofindustry,thechangeoflabor forcephysicallyandspatially(passingfromhouselabortoindustriallaborandaging emergence fromrural areas to the urban areas)

3. Together with these, the mainchangesemergingeconomy (standing out democracy etc.)

Industrialdevelopment,togetherwithit,alsotriggeringthe importantchangesinthe ordinary livesof humans, led the social mobilizationto appear.Although “Urbanization”(Keleş, 2006) and Metropole (Sombart, 2013: 58-76), areimportantcenters,requiringthattogetherwiththemthe relationshipsof“specialty”,reachthe toplevels,tookplaceamongthemain valuesofsocialtransformation. Eventhough the relationshipof industryandurbanization(Foster, 2008: 20-22; Sımmel, 2009: 317-29; Can, 2013: 78-80; Benevole, 2006)isseentobedisengagementfromthetypeoftraditionalsociety,inaddition,whenconsidered in terms ofwomen, sincethisisthedeparturepointofthe distinctionbetween houseandwork(Bock, 2004:110-12; Yalom, 2002:186-92),constitutedanissueinstandingoutof women.Forexample,industrialproduction,directlyaddressingtothe labor ofwomen(In 1891 – Germany,4.5millionoutof7.5millionoflaborers;inEngland,1880,intherate of22%;inBelgium,inthesamedate, 13%; in 1895,in Switzerland, 40,5)itwasobserved a seriousincrease,comparedtothetraditional economy(Brizon, 1977: 458).Whenconsidered intheframeworkofworld wars,thattheeconomicandsocialrightsshow development(Kapani, 1993: 54-60; Heınen, 2009: 306-311)becameimportantdepartmentpointsinarrangingrightsofwomen.Whenreachedthe year1914,inthecountriesofindustrialrevolution,thatwomenhadthe possibilitiesofwomen inthe highrate(Roberts, 2014: 444-45),thankstothe immigrationsof women,and becamecloselyrelated tothebusinessoptionsurbanizationprovided.

3. WAR ECONOMY AND DETERMINATION OF THE POSITIONOFWOMANLABORFORCE



1929 Great Depression also formed the problems in familiar relationships and the scattered families showed an increase. Toffler (Toffler, 2008, p.264) is in the thought of that the type of core family began to experience trouble at the end of economic depression under consideration. Together, with Second World War, women labor force participation (USA, United Kingdom, Germany, and France) showed an increase in the rate of 40% (Bock, 2004: 253; Yalom, 2002, p.319). Although woman is responsible for child care, throughout history,she also stood out in some production relationships. However, 1970s (Koray, 2008: 346-47; Özcüre, 2014: 200; Steans, 2014, p.543-44) , together with war economy, in terms of women, in whom labor force participation showed increase, along with the contributions of this change, became a period, when the remarkable changes stood out against labor force participation. After a little time, these changes provided possibility with an effective developments from different aspects to questioning the historical position of women in economic system (Donovan, 2010: 267-77; Lewellen, 2011: 172-74; Pilcher, 2014: 11-12; Toksöz, 2011: 64-65) In the other meanings, post -1970 economic and social change can be considered as a new concordance process of women. Together with technology change in micro level Toffler, 2008: 176-77; Castells, 2013, cilt-1: 52-56;Mattelart, 2012: 84-85), and diversification of specialty in framework of the flexible labor force women (Harvey, 2012: 177) incorporated a new production process in the framework of labor force. Woman labor force is desirable in peat time business market and showed an increase, but in fact, women were included in a new consumption stage. In just this new process, discrimination of “woman and man” (Baudrillard, 2015: 114-15) can be understood as a form of concordance making practiced the running logic of the market. This discrimination (Ritzer, 2011: 320-21) should be seen a different dynamic od economy in the form of household and business. In summary, in the traditional societies in the framework of marriage laws, women made dependent on the family are forced to the double sided life as a running logic of market process in the modern society. Information economy and new economy mostly place this process in a functional balance.



4. CHANGINGLABORFORCEINNEWECONOMY



Together with the changes occurring in economy, the main structures restructured their places with the effect of informational communication (Castells /2013, volume-1: 293-94) and specialization, based on flexibility and information, revealed diversity. Service-sided change of professional structures also transformed the sectorial subtitles. The market approach of 1970s, placing on these main changes, enabled international relationship to intensify. While modern industry, with the railways, provide convergence in transportation, in information economy, remoteness stopped being a problem (Drucker, 2014: 66-68). “Information economy” (Castells, 2013, vol-1, p.100; Lyon, 2014, p. 367-70) pioneered a paradigmatic change in the efficiency of technology. In this new economy, flexibility (Jewson and Felstead, 2014: 358), as an important policy, is an application toward the aim to reduce cost in terms of labor force. This application, as a unique opportunity toward the concordance process of women directly, took place in labor force market. Productivity (Castells, 2013, vol-1: 100-125) takes place in the first titles standing out in informational economy. Besides technological productivity, among cost reductive elements, the cost of labor force is also is another title of flexible economy. Just as in the example of seasonal worker (Çınar, 2014, s.506-507), women become cost reductive in the scope of labor force. On the other hand, women, together with this process, are included in the subordination in a new dimension. That is, although the problem of women with equality (Barry, 2012: 321; Özcüre, 2014: 207-208; Vincent, 2006: 313-17) not only results from the area of labor force or structural features, it increases much more due informality that is a new problem new economy brings.



5. IN NEWECONOMYTHE CHANGINGECONOMICAND SOCIALPOSITIONSOF WOMANLABOR FORCE



When arrived 1990s, the rate of women labor force participation showed an serious improvement and, all over the world, 854 million of women were in an effective position in the economy (Castells, 2008, vol-2: 277). As feminization of business life (Heywood, 2013: 504-508 ), global economy, together with its production based change toward export, certainly points out a remarkable period in terms of history of woman labor force However, this situation in contrast to what is seen, corresponds to a little developedness from appropriating of women to their wage incomes (while they have 2/3 of worldwide working hours, they meet 1% of appropriation) It is seen that the increase of women labor force intensifies in a certain professions. According to the determinations of 2004, carried out in USA (US Department of Labor), in 2002, it is seen that woman labor force intensified in the service sectors such as nursing, secretary, pre-school teaching, and etc (Koray, 2008: 354). The sectors, in which women are abundant, have a feature, which will be first prepared to sacrifice during crises and they are not deemed very satisfying areas in terms of return. Asian woman labor force, when the periods of 1975-1995 are examined, is lower compared to men and, together with the fall of labor cost, competition has increased (Toksöz, 2012: 175-76).As an another example, in terms of agricultural production, while women have the half of total production in developing countries, her contribution to family on the basis of food corresponds to a rate of 2/3 (True, 2013: 317). Women, between household work and business life (Kymlıcka, 2006: 523), in global system, are included in the stage of 7/24 production, so to say. Since these negativities are apparent, the stage of identification is easy; however, the social production of women (Sacks, 2014: 255-57), being reserved in the part of household work, their labors become invisible and, thus, in market, women participate in labor force as directly subordinated. In the other meaning, women are forced to take a dual attitude (Toksöz, 2011: 58-60) in the production of labor. While concordance incorporate women into direct production with flexible working, on the other hand, indirectly, it continues to sustain household labor. Since economic and political changes have an important effect as background of social gender concordance, they retransform the process in a different way. Women, as flexible working time, mostly participate in the medium of “part time working” (Koray, 2008: 356-61) in global economy (about 70% in United Kingdom, USA, etc.). When arrived to 1990s, 60% of American family became with double earning (Yalom, 2002: 379-81). This economic change did not bring that women give up household works. In United Kingdom, as a country, where the increase of woman labor force was remarkable, after Second World War, according to a study, carried out between 1971 and 2004, employment rate of women rose from 56% from 70%, while employment rate of men fell from 92% to 79%. It is important to know that these rates especially varied with part-time labor force increase. According to the study of Guddens under consideration, it is faced with the wage gap of women (2013: 807-808) and, as the reason for emergence of this, professional discrimination is pointed out.

One of the main values of new economy is that the effect of education to produce and employ is important. On the basis of technology, the importance of education and employment in terms of information economy (Freeman and Soete, 2004: 456-62) becomes, in the context of the negative effect of intensification the woman labor force and employment in a certain area, the main reason for emergence. Between women and men, there are currently serious gaps in wages all over the world and, in terms of developing countries, education is seen an important reason in this negativity (Miraglia and Spronk, 2014: 139-40). Remy, 2014) observed that due to the fact that girls are deprived of education, their job options decreased. In terms of the educated women, the distinction of business life and household life largely faces with a new problem in the familiar relationships at the point of raising children in terms of cooperation. At the point of that business life and household life are in harmony, making a selection stands out. (Sandıkçıoğlu, 1998: 64-67)



CONCLUSION



Global conomic development and diversity bring together with it the reanalysis of the state of woman labor force. The development in industry and new economy enabled women to take place much more in economy. Especially 1970s became the years, when woman labor force was dominant. In 1990, this rate increased much more. Although woman labor force shows an increase since it is desirable in part time job market, in fact, women were included in a new consumption stage. But, increase of woman labor force continued to intensify in certain professions and this intensification could not be impeded. In addition, the fact that woman labor force receives less wage compared to man and inadequate education are also the other two important points. As a conclusion, new economy mostly placed woman to an economic and functional position. However, inequality problem of woman labor force incorporating into economy much more are still continuing due to its structural features.



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







Paris konferansımız için hazırladığımız (ve kabul gören) bu anlatımımızın teması; “kadınların uygunlaştırılmasına yöneliktir.” Değerli hocam DR. Bilge Afşar’a çeviri ve katkılarından dolayı ayrıca teşekkür ediyorum…





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